Flexor hallucis longus tendonitis
||Inflammation of tendon that flexes big toe; tendon is stressed
with releve, jumps, pointe work.
||Pain, tightness, and/or weakness along the tendon in arch or
behind the inner part of the ankle.
Symptomatic os trigonum
||Extra piece of bone behind ankle joint (found normally in
20% of individuals) gets pinched when the toes are
pointed and ankle is flexed downward.
||Pain, tightness, and occasional swelling behind ankle associated
with releve, pointe work, and going up on toes.
Anterior talar impingement
||Pinching of soft tissues in front of ankle with ankle bending
||Pain, tightness, pinching sensation in front of ankle with
plié, preparing to jump, and landing from jump.
||The ankle inverts (collapses inward) most commonly when dancers
are on their toes while jumping, landing, or turning.
||Pain, swelling on outer ankle; sense of instability with
sideways movement; sprains are more common if there has been a
||Repetitive impact stress can cause weakening of bone; often
without a visible crack seen on x-ray. Common in metatarsals
(forefoot), tarsals (midfoot), tibia, and fibula (leg) and
occasionally femur, pelvis, and spine.
||Persistent, deep, bony pain associated with high levels of
impact activity; more common in dancers with calcium or vitamin
D deficiency, eating disorders, and menstrual
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
||Pain under the kneecap from pressure associated with knee
bending, pliés, jumps; can lead to softening or thinning
of cartilage behind the kneecap.
||Dull, achy anterior knee pain that increases with knee bending,
pliés, and jumps.
||Multiple causes including tendon snapping over front or side of
hip; associated with active hip movement; occasionally due to
torn cartilage lining the hip socket but very unlikely due to
||Snapping sensation that may or may not be painful; occasionally,
dancer has a sense that the hip is going out of place;
occasionally, there is a catch or pinching sensation deep in
joint when hip is bending.
||The pars interarticularis is a part of the spine that is
stressed with back extension (arching); pain or weakening of the
pars most commonly occurs during periods of rapid bony growth.
Injuries to this area may be referred to as spondylolysis, or
stress fracture of the spine.
||Tightness, achiness in central part of the low back that is
worse with arching, jumping, running, and lying prone; better
with forward bending; nerve symptoms and radiating pain are rare
with this condition.
||Weakening or bulging of lumbar disc; due to repetitive trunk
bending, twisting, or lifting. Athletes may also get a vertebral
end plate (growth plate) injury.
||Low back pain that extends to the flank or buttock; may spread
to thigh; occasional numbness or tingling; worse with sitting,
bending, lifting, and lying down with face up; better with
arching and lying down with face down.